Python is an interpreted(processed at runtime by the interpreter), object-oriented(supports Object-Oriented style), interactive, simple, easy to learn, portable, extensible, embedded, high-level programming language for general-purpose programming. Created by Guido van Rossum at the National Research Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science in the Netherlands and first released in 1991. Python is derived from ABC, Modula-3, SmallTalk, Algol-68, C, C++, Unix shell and other scripting languages.Python's source code is available under the GNU General Public License (GPL) which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.

    Java is a general-purpose computer programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.Created by Sun Micro-systems (now owned by Oracle Corporation). Java's source code is available under the GNU General Public License (GPL)GNU General Public License, Java Community Process. Java can be used to create complete applications that may run on a single computer or be distributed among servers and clients in a network.

There are many types of Java programs which run differently:

  1. Java Applet - small program written in Java and that is downloaded from a website and executed within a web browser on a client computer.
  2. Application - executes on a client computer. If online, it has to be downloaded before being run.
  3. JAR file (Java ARchive) - used to package Java files together into a single file (almost exactly like a .zip file).
  4. Servlet - runs on a web server and helps to generate web pages.
  5. Swing application - used to build an application that has a GUI (windows, buttons, menus, etc.).
  6. EJB - runs on a web server and is used to develop large, complex websites.

    JavaScript, often abbreviated as JS, is a high-level, dynamic, weakly typed, prototype-based, multi-paradigm, and interpreted programming language.Created by Brendan Eich at Netscape, for the Netscape Navigator Web browser. The engine, code-named SpiderMonkey, is implemented in C. It has since been updated (in JavaScript 1.5) to conform to ECMAScript 3.It was inspired by Java. JavaScript is a client side technology used to give client side validation. Creates new functions within scripts.Giving the user more control over the browser and detects the user's browser and OS, used for handling dates and time etc.

    CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) and HTML (the Hypertext Markup Language) are two of the core technologies for building Web pages. CSS provides the presentation of Web pages, including colors, layout, and fonts and HTML provides the structure of the page.CSS is a simple, declarative language for creating style sheets that specify the rendering of HTML and other structured documents.

    C++ is a general-purpose object-oriented programming (OOP) language, developed by Bjarne Stroustrup, and is an extension of the C language. It is therefore possible to code C++ in a "C style" or "object-oriented style." ... However, it was renamed C++ in 1983. It encapsulates both high-level and low-level language features. Essential concepts within the C++ programming language include polymorphism, virtual and friend functions, templates, namespaces and pointers.C++ is used to write system/application software, drivers, client-server applications and embedded firmware.

    PHP is a server-side scripting language designed for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language. Originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994, the PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Group.PHP is an acronym for "PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor".GPL enforces many restrictions on what can and cannot be done with the licensed code. The PHP developers decided to release PHP under a much more loose license (Apache-style), to help PHP become as popular as possible.

    C is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations. Developed by Dennis M. Ritchie to develop the UNIX operating system at Bell Labs in 1970.The UNIX operating system, the C compiler, and essentially all UNIX application programs, Linux OS and RDBMS MySQL have been written in C.The C language is not a software but its a defined standard, so it's an open standard not an open source.The GCC's C compiler is under the GNU General Public License (GPL), an open-source license.

    In 1970, Dr. E.F. Codd published "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks," an article that outlined a model for storing and manipulating data using tables. Shortly after Codd's article was published, IBM began working on creating a relational database.Between 1979 and 1982, Oracle (then Relational Software, Inc.), Relational Technology, Inc. (later acquired by Computer Associates), and IBM all put out commercial relational databases, and by 1986 they all were using SQL as the data query language.

    In 1986, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standardised SQL. This standard was updated in 1989, in 1992 (called SQL2), in 1999 (called SQL3), in 2003 (called SQL 2003), in 2006 (called SQL 2006) and in 2008 (called SQL 2008). Standard SQL is sometimes called ANSI SQL. All major relational databases support this standard but each has its own proprietary extensions. Unless otherwise noted, the SQL taught in this course is the standard ANSI SQL.SQL stands for Structured Query Language.SQL has established itself as standard of database query language.

    Ruby is a object-oriented, general-purpose, reflective, dynamic, open source programming language with a focus on simplicity and productivity and was influenced by Perl, Eiffel, Smalltalk, Ada, and Lisp. It has a classic syntax that is easy to write and natural to read. It was designed and developed at Japan by Yukihiro "Matz" Matsumoto in the mid-1990s .

    Go is a programming language created by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson at Google in 2009. Google designed Go to solve their problems of effectiveness and supporting scalability. Go is also used by some big companies like Adobe, BBC, IBM, Intel and even Medium.Go provides you super efficient concurrency handling like Java and fun to code like Python/Perl and high performance like C/C++.